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  Past continuous tense

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AuthorMessage
ahmed raheel



عدد المساهمات : 116
تاريخ التسجيل : 2013-03-29
العمر : 17

20130406
Post Past continuous tense

يستخدم هذا الزمن للتعبير عن فعل وقع في الماضي أثناء وقوع فعل أخر.
يتكون هذا الزمن من :
was / were فعل+ + ing
يأتي هذا الزمن عادة مع كلمات مثل :
When…عندما , while…بينما , as…حيث أن, because…لأن
ملحوظة:
هذا الزمن عادة ما يأتي معه الزمن الماضي البسيط والذي تخلل الماضي المستمر أي الذي وقع أثناء حدوثه.
أمثلة:
He took my photo while I was having dinner.

I had my dinner while he was taking my photo
.

ملاحظة: يمكن وضع أداة الربط وسط الجملة دون أن يتغير المعنى فتصبح الجملتان السابقة كما يلي :
دخل لص غرفتي بينما كنت نائماً
A thief entered my room while I was sleeping
.

جاء والدي بينما كنا نأكل
My father came when we were eating .


ملاحظة:
تكتب الفاصلة إذا بدأت الجملة بكلمة while وتحذف إذا وقعت في منتصف الجملة الأولى .
تذكر دائماً أن قاعدة while بها فعلان الأول طويل مستمر والآخر مفاجئ وهو ماضي بسيط.

"بينما" و "عندما"
While and When
اشباه الجمل هي مجموعة من الكلمات التي لَها معنى، ولكنها في أغلب الأحيان ليست بجمل كاملة.
Clauses are groups of words which have meaning, but are often not complete sentences.
تَبْدأُ بَعْض أشباه الجمل بالكلمةِ "عندما" مثل "عندما دَعتْ "أَو" عندما عضتني."
Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when she called" or "when it bit me."
وتَبْدأُ أشباه الجملُ الأخرى ب "بينما" مثل "بينما كَانتْ هي تَنَامُ "و" بينما كَانَ هو يَتجوّلُ."
Other clauses begin with "while" such as "while she was sleeping" and "while he was surfing."
وعندما تَتحدّثُ عن الأشياءِ في الماضي، يأتي بعد "عندما" ،غالبا، ماضي بسيط ،
When you talk about things in the past, "when" is most often followed by the verb tense Simple Past,
بينما يأتي بعد "بينما" عادة فعل ماضي مستمر.
whereas "while" is usually followed by Past Continuous.
تُعبر "بينما" عن فكرة حدثت "خلال تلك الفترة"
"While" expresses the idea of "during that time."
إدرسْ الأمثلةَ التالية فيها معاني مماثلةُ، لَكنَّها تؤكد أجزاءَ مختلفةَ مِنْ الجملةِ.
Study the examples below. They have similar meanings, but they emphasize different parts of the sentence.
امثله:
أنا كُنْتُ أَدْرسُ متى دَعتْ.
I was studying when she called
بينما أنا كُنْتُ أَدْرسُ، دَعتْ.
While I was studying, she called


تكوين النفي والسؤال في حالة صيغة الماضي المستمر

You were studying when she called. جملة اثبات

You were not studying when she called. حملة منفية

Were you studying when she called? جملة في حالة الاستفهام


تم نقل الموضوع التالي من الانترنت وقمت بترجمته إلى العربية
استعمالات الماضي المستمر
الاستعمال الأول قطع عمل الماضي المستمر
يستعملْ
الماضي المستمرَ للإشارة إلى أن عملا ماضي مستمر قد تم قطعه. وعادة يكون
التوقفَ أقصر وفي الماضي البسيطِ. تذكّرْ هذا يُمكنُ أَنْ يَكُونَ توقف
حقيقي أَو فقط توقف بمرور الوقت.
USE 1 Interrupted Action in the Past
Use
the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was
interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple
Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption
in time.
الأمثلة:

أنا كُنْتُ أُراقبُ التلفزيونَ عندما اتصلت.
I was watching TV when she called

عندما الهاتف دَقَّ، هي كَانتْ تَكْتبُ رسالة.
When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.

بينما كنا في النزهةُ، بَدأَ الإمْطار.

While we were having the picnic, it started to rain.

ماذا كُنْتَ تَعْملُ عندما بدأ الزلزالَ ؟
What were you doing when the earthquake started?

أنا كُنْتُ أَستمعُ إلى الآيبود، لذا أنا لَمْ أَسْمعْ جرسَ الحريق.
I was listening to my iPod, so I didn't hear the fire alarm.

أنت لم تَستمعُ لي عندما أخبرتُك لإطفاء الفرن.
You were not listening to me when I told you to turn the oven off.

بينما جون كَانَ نائماً ليلة أمس، سَرقَ شخص ما سيارتِه.
While John was sleeping last night, someone stole his car.

سامي كَانَ يَنتظرُنا عندما نَزلنَا من الطائرةِ.
Sammy was waiting for us when we got off the plane.

بينما أنا كُنْتُ أَكْتبُ البريد الإلكتروني، تعطل الحاسوبَ فجأة.
While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.

أ: ماذا كُنْتَ تَعْملُ عندما انكسر ساقَكَ؟
A: What were you doing when you broke your leg?
ب: أنا كُنْتُ أَتزحلقُ على الثلوج.
B: I was snowboarding

الاستعمال الثاني تحديد وقت انقطاع عمل الماضي المستمر
في
الاستعمال الأول، المذكور أعلاه، قُطع عمل الماضي المستمر بعمل أقصر في
الماضي البسيطِ. على أية حال، يمكنك استعمال وقت معيّن للقطع(التداخل).

USE 2 Specific Time as an Interruption
In
USE 1, described above, the Past Continuous is interrupted by a shorter
action in the Simple Past. However, you can also use a specific time as
an interruption.
أمثلة:
في الساعة السادسة أمس، أنا كُنْتُ آكلُ العشاء.
Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.

عند منتصف الليل، نحن ما زِلنا نَقُودُ السيارة عبر الصحراء.
At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
في هذا الوقتِ أمس ، أنا كُنْتُ أَجْلسُ في منضدتِي في العمل.
Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
ملاحظة:
في
الماضيِ البسيطِ , يُستَعملُ وقت معيّن ليبين متى بَدأَ العملَ أَو
أنتهىَ. في الماضي المستمرِ, وقتَ معيّنَ يقطع (يتداخل مع) العملَ فقط.
IMPORTANT
In
the Simple Past, a specific time is used to show when an action began
or finished. In the Past Continuous, a specific time only interrupts the
action
.
أمثلة:
ليلة أمس في 6 مساءً، أَكلتُ عشاءاً.
بَدأتُ بالأَكْل في 6 مساءً.
Last night at 6 PM, I ate dinner.
I STARTED EATING AT 6 PM
.
ليلة أمس في 6 مساءً، أنا كُنْتُ آكلُ عشاءَ.
بَدأتُ في وقت سابق؛ وفي 6 مساءً، أنا كُنْتُ في عملية أكلُ العشاءً.
Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
I STARTED EARLIER; AND AT 6 PM, I WAS IN THE PROCESS OF EATING DINNER
.

الاستعمال الثالث للفعل الماضي المستمر
عندما تَستعملُ الماضي مستمرَ بعملين في نفس الجملةِ، يُظهرُ الفكرةَ التي كلتا العملين يحدثان في نفس الوقت. وإنّ العملين متوازيين.
USE 3 Parallel Actions
When
you use the Past Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it
expresses the idea that both actions were happening at the same time.
The actions are parallel
.

أمثلة
أنا كُنْتُ أَدْرسُ بينما هو كَانَ يعمل العشاءَ.
I was studying while he was making dinner.

بينما كَان عماد يقْرأُ، سامر كَانَ يُراقبُ تلفزيونَ.
While Emad was reading, Samer was watching television.

هَلْ كُنْتَ تَستمعُ بينما هو كَانَ يَتكلّمُ؟
Were you listening while he was talking?

أنا ما كُنْتُ منتبهاً بينما أنا كُنْتُ أَكْتبُ الرسالةَ، لذا عملت عِدّة أخطاء.
I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
ماذا كُنْتَ تَعْملُ بينما أنت كُنْتَ تَنتظرُ؟
What were you doing while you were waiting?
ما كَانَ علي يَعْملُ، وأنا ما كُنْتُ أَعْملُ أيضا.
Ali wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.

هم كَانوا يَأْكلونَ العشاءَ، يُناقشون خططَهم، ويَقْضونَ وقتاً جميلاً.
They were eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time.

الاستعمال الرابع للفعل الماضي المستمر – في وصف الجو
نَستعملُ في اللغة الانجليزية، أغلب الأحيان، سلسلة الأعمالِ المتوازيةِ لوَصْف الجوِّ في وقت معيّن في الماضي.
USE 4 Atmosphere
In English, we often use a series of parallel actions to describe the atmosphere at a particular time in the past
.
عندما
دَخلتُ المكتبَ، كَانوا عِدّة أشخاص مشغولين بالطباعة ، البعض كَانوا
يَتكلّمونَ على الهواتفِ، الرئيس كَانَ يَهْتفُ بالتوجيهات، والزبائن
كَانوا يَنتظرونَ لكي يُساعدوا. كَانَ زبون واحد يَصْرخُ في السكرتير
ويُلوّحُ بيديه. كَانوا الآخرون يَشتكونَ إلى بعضهم البعض حول الخدمةِ
السيئةِ.
When I walked into the office, several people were busily
typing, some were talking on the phones, the boss was yelling
directions, and customers were waiting to be helped. One customer was
yelling at a secretary and waving his hands. Others were complaining to
each other about the bad service
.

الاستعمال الخامس للفعل الماضي المستمر في حالة التكرار والإثارة مع (دائما)
أيُظهرُ
الماضي المستمر المستعمل مع الكلماتِ مثل "دائماً" أو " بشكل ثابتً"، فكرة
إثارة او صدمه حَدثتْ في أغلب الأحيان في الماضي. إنّ المفهومَ مشابه جداً
للتعبيرِ "تَعوّدَ عَلى" ولكن بالعاطفةِ السلبيةِ. تذكّرْ بأن تضع
الكلماتِ "دائماً" أو " بشكل ثابت" بين "يَكُونُ" و"فعل +ing."
USE 5 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"
The
Past Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses
the idea that something irritating or shocking often happened in the
past. The concept is very similar to the expression "used to" but with
negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly"
between "be" and "verb+ing."[/LEFT
]أمثلة:
كَانتْ هي تَجيءُ دائماً إلى الصفِ متأخرة.
She was always coming to class late.

كَانَ هو يَتكلّمُ بشكل ثابت. أزعجَ كُلّ شخصَ.
He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.

أنا لَمْ أَحْببْهم لأنهم كَانوا يَشتكونَ دائماً.
I didn't like them because they were always complaining


تذكّرْ الأفعال التي ليس لها صيغة استمرار / والأفعال المخلوطه
من
المُهمِ أن تتَذْكر تلك الأفعالِ التي ليس لها صيغة فعل استمرار ولا يمكن
استعمالها في صيغة الاستمرار. وأيضاً، بَعْض المعاني للأفعالِ
المُخْتَلَطةِ التي ليس لها صيغة استمرار لا يُمْكن أنْ تُستَعملَ في صيغة
الاستمرار. وبدلاً مِنْ أنْ يَستعملَ ماضي مستمرَ بهذه الأفعالِ، يَجِبُ
أَنْ تَستعملَ ماضي بسيطَ.
REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs / Mixed Verbs
It
is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in
any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed
Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past
Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Past
.
الأمثلة:
كَانتْ جين في بيتِي عندما وَصلتَ. غير صحيح
Jane was being at my house when you arrived. Not Correct

كَانتْ جين في بيتِي عندما وَصلتَ. صحيح
Jane was at my house when you arrived. Correct

اقرأ ما يلي:
Types of Verbs
Before
you begin the verb tense lessons, it is extremely important to
understand that NOT all English verbs are the same. English verbs are
divided into three groups: Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed
Verbs.
Group I Normal Verbs
Most verbs are "Normal Verbs." These
verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing.
These verbs can be used in all tenses.
Normal Verbs
to run, to walk, to eat, to fly, to go, to say, to touch, etc.
Examples:
• I eat dinner every day.
• I am eating dinner now.
Group II Non-Continuous Verbs
The
second group, called "Non-Continuous Verbs," is smaller. These verbs
are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are rarely
used in continuous tenses. They include:
Abstract Verbs
to be, to want, to cost, to seem, to need, to care, to contain, to owe, to exist...
Possession Verbs
to possess, to own, to belong...
Emotion Verbs
to like, to love, to hate, to dislike, to fear, to envy, to mind...
Examples:
• He is needing help now. Not Correct
• He needs help now. Correct
• He is wanting a drink now. Not Correct
• He wants a drink now. Correct
Group III Mixed Verbs
The
third group, called "Mixed Verbs," is the smallest group. These verbs
have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb.
Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs," while other meanings
behave like "Normal Verbs."
Mixed Verbs
to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh...
List of Mixed Verbs with Examples and Definitions:
to appear:
• Donna appears confused. Non-Continuous Verb
DONNA SEEMS CONFUSED.
• My favorite singer is appearing at the jazz club tonight. Normal Verb
MY FAVORITE SINGER IS GIVING A PERFORMANCE AT THE JAZZ CLUB TONIGHT.
to have:
• I have a dollar now. Non-Continuous Verb
I POSSESS A DOLLAR.
• I am having fun now. Normal Verb
I AM EXPERIENCING FUN NOW.
to hear:
• She hears the music. Non-Continuous Verb
SHE HEARS THE MUSIC WITH HER EARS.
• She is hearing voices. Normal Verb
SHE HEARS SOMETHING OTHERS CANNOT HEAR. SHE IS HEARING VOICES IN HER MIND.
to look:
• Nancy looks tired. Non-Continuous Verb
SHE SEEMS TIRED.
• Farah is looking at the pictures. Normal Verb
SHE IS LOOKING WITH HER EYES.
to miss:
• John misses Sally. Non-Continuous Verb
HE IS SAD BECAUSE SHE IS NOT THERE.
• Debbie is missing her favorite TV program. Normal Verb
SHE IS NOT THERE TO SEE HER FAVORITE PROGRAM.
to see:
• I see her. Non-Continuous Verb
I SEE HER WITH MY EYES.
• I am seeing the doctor. Normal Verb
I AM VISITING OR CONSULTING WITH A DOCTOR. (ALSO USED WITH DENTIST AND LAWYER.)
• I am seeing her. Normal Verb
I AM HAVING A RELATIONSHIP WITH HER.
• He is seeing ghosts at night. Normal Verb
HE SEES SOMETHING OTHERS CANNOT SEE. FOR EXAMPLE GHOSTS, AURA, A VISION OF THE FUTURE, ETC.
to smell:
• The coffee smells good. Non-Continuous Verb
THE COFFEE HAS A GOOD SMELL.
• I am smelling the flowers. Normal Verb
I AM SNIFFING THE FLOWERS TO SEE WHAT THEIR SMELL IS LIKE.
to taste:
• The coffee tastes good. Non-Continuous Verb
THE COFFEE HAS A GOOD TASTE.
• I am tasting the cake. Normal Verb
I AM TRYING THE CAKE TO SEE WHAT IT TASTES LIKE.
to think:
• He thinks the test is easy. Non-Continuous Verb
HE CONSIDERS THE TEST TO BE EASY.
• She is thinking about the question. Normal Verb
SHE IS PONDERING THE QUESTION, GOING OVER IT IN HER MIND.
to weigh:
• The table weighs a lot. Non-Continuous Verb
THE TABLE IS HEAVY.
• She is weighing herself. Normal Verb
SHE IS DETERMINING HER WEIGHT.
Some Verbs Can Be Especially Confusing:
to be:
• Joe is American. Non-Continuous Verb
JOE IS AN AMERICAN CITIZEN.
• Joe is being very American. Normal Verb
JOE IS BEHAVING LIKE A STEREOTYPICAL AMERICAN.
• Joe is being very rude. Normal Verb
JOE IS BEHAVING VERY RUDELY. USUALLY HE IS NOT RUDE.
• Joe is being very formal. Normal Verb
JOE IS BEHAVING VERY FORMALLY. USUALLY HE IS NOT FORMAL.
NOTICE:
Only rarely is "to be" used in a continuous form. This is most commonly
done when a person is temporarily behaving badly or stereotypically. It
can also be used when someone's behavior is noticeably different.
to feel:
• The massage feels great. Non-Continuous Verb
THE MASSAGE HAS A PLEASING FEELING.
• I don't feel well today. Sometimes used as Non-Continuous Verb
I AM A LITTLE SICK.
I am not feeling well today. Sometimes used as Normal Verb
I AM A LITTLE SICK.
NOTICE:
The second meaning of "feel" is very flexible and there is no real
difference in meaning between "I don't feel well today" and "I am not
feeling well today."
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